2011 EZ78 Goldstone Radar Observations Planning


Background


2011 EZ78 was discovered on March 15, 2011 by the Mt. Lemmon Survey in Arizona. 
Its absolute magnitude of 17.15 implies a diameter of ~1.2 km (within a factor of two).

2011 EZ78 will approach within 0.0958 AU (~37.3 lunar distances) on July 10, 2011, when
it will be a weak radar target.  We plan to obtain echo 
power spectra and perhaps coarse-resolution ranging.
2011 EZ78 remains brighter than magnitude 15 throughout July. 

Recent optical observations by Brian Skiff (Lowell Observatory) and Michael Hicks et al. 
(JPL's Table Mountain Observatory) indicate that 2011 EZ78 has a rotation period of
3.1 h and that it is an S-class object.

We have one six-hour track on July 9th from 05:25-11:25 UTC.

Orbital and Physical Characteristics  
 orbit type               Amor
 semimajor axis           2.400 AU     
 eccentricity             0.54
 inclination              17.8 deg
 perihelion distance      1.108 AU     
 aphelion distance        3.692 AU     
 absolute magnitude (H)   17.15
 diameter                ~1.2 km 
 rotation period          3.12 h  (B. Skiff, pers. comm.)
 pole direction           unknown  
 lightcurve amplitude     0.6 mag
 spectral class           S       (M. D. Hicks et al., pers. comm.)

Last update: 2011 Jul 11

First MPEC

 M.P.E.C. 2011-G88                                Issued 2011 Apr. 14, 23:53 UT

     The Minor Planet Electronic Circulars contain information on unusual
         minor planets and routine data on comets.  They are published
   on behalf of Commission 20 of the International Astronomical Union by the
          Minor Planet Center, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory,
                          Cambridge, MA 02138, U.S.A.

             Prepared using the Tamkin Foundation Computer Network

                              MPC@CFA.HARVARD.EDU
            URL http://www.minorplanetcenter.net/    ISSN 1523-6714

                                   2011 EZ78

Observations:
     K11E78Z* C2011 03 15.45942 15 47 21.62 +12 43 02.7          19.3 VrEG088G96
     K11E78Z  C2011 03 15.46307 15 47 21.94 +12 43 05.4          19.4 VrEG088G96
     K11E78Z  C2011 03 15.46677 15 47 22.30 +12 43 08.4          19.4 VrEG088G96
     K11E78Z  C2011 03 15.47047 15 47 22.66 +12 43 11.2          19.5 VrEG088G96
     K11E78Z  C2011 04 14.12859 16 31 45.90 +20 35 06.1          18.0 VrEG088J75
     K11E78Z  C2011 04 14.13917 16 31 46.71 +20 35 17.6          18.2 VrEG088J75
     K11E78Z  C2011 04 14.14976 16 31 47.53 +20 35 29.0          18.7 VrEG088J75
     K11E78Z  C2011 04 14.16746 16 31 48.92 +20 35 48.3          18.7 VrEG088J75
     K11E78Z  C2011 04 14.17172 16 31 49.24 +20 35 52.9          18.8 VrEG088J75
     K11E78Z  C2011 04 14.17599 16 31 49.57 +20 35 57.5          18.7 VrEG088J75
     K11E78Z KC2011 04 14.95128 16 32 53.65 +20 49 54.0          18.5 VuEG088B86
     K11E78Z KC2011 04 14.96025 16 32 54.39 +20 50 03.9          18.4 VuEG088B86
     K11E78Z KC2011 04 14.96920 16 32 55.11 +20 50 13.6          18.4 VuEG088B86

Observer details:
B86 Sternwarte Hagen.  Observer M. Klein.  0.50-m f/3.0 Deltagraph + CCD.
G96 Mt. Lemmon Survey.  Observer A. Boattini.  Measurers J. D. Ahern,
    E. C. Beshore, A. Boattini, G. J. Garradd, A. R. Gibbs, A. D. Grauer,
    R. E. Hill, R. A. Kowalski, S. M. Larson, R. H. McNaught.  1.5-m reflector
    + CCD.
J75 OAM Observatory, La Sagra.  Observers S. Sanchez, J. Nomen, R. Stoss,
    M. Hurtado, J. A. Jaume, W. K. Y. Yeung.  0.45-m f/2.8 reflector + CCD.

Orbital elements:
2011 EZ78                                                Earth MOID = 0.0908 AU
Epoch 2011 Feb. 8.0 TT = JDT 2455600.5                  MPC
M 319.59056              (2000.0)            P               Q
n   0.26463413     Peri.  179.45358     +0.33393719     +0.89757342
a   2.4027328      Node   110.02816     -0.86597232     +0.41273530
e   0.5387915      Incl.   17.84003     -0.37226052     -0.15495653
P   3.72           H   17.1           G   0.15           U   7
Residuals in seconds of arc
110315 G96  0.1+  0.0     110414 J75  0.1-  0.1-    110414 B86  0.3-  0.0
110315 G96  0.2-  0.1-    110414 J75  0.1-  0.1-    110414 B86  0.1+  0.1+
110315 G96  0.0   0.1+    110414 J75  0.2+  0.1+    110414 B86  0.2+  0.1-
110315 G96  0.2+  0.0     110414 J75  0.1+  0.1+
110414 J75  0.0   0.1-    110414 J75  0.0   0.1+

Ephemeris:
2011 EZ78                a,e,i = 2.40, 0.54, 18                  q = 1.1082
Date    TT    R. A. (2000) Decl.     Delta      r     Elong.  Phase     V
2011 03 15    15 46 37.1 +12 37 12   0.9918  1.6987   117.6    31.2    19.6
...
2011 03 30    16 10 02.7 +16 14 25   0.8134  1.5925   122.7    31.8    19.0
...
2011 04 07    16 21 47.5 +18 28 36   0.7284  1.5366   124.6    32.4    18.7
...
2011 04 13    16 30 12.9 +20 14 50   0.6692  1.4952   125.7    33.0    18.5
2011 04 14    16 31 35.3 +20 32 50   0.6597  1.4883   125.8    33.1    18.4
2011 04 15    16 32 57.1 +20 50 54   0.6503  1.4815   126.0    33.2    18.4
...
2011 04 21    16 40 57.4 +22 40 01   0.5959  1.4410   126.5    34.1    18.2
...
2011 04 29    16 51 10.1 +25 03 54   0.5282  1.3885   126.7    35.6    17.9
...
2011 05 14    17 09 29.4 +29 00 24   0.4137  1.2967   125.8    39.2    17.3

Timothy B. Spahr             (C) Copyright 2011 MPC           M.P.E.C. 2011-G88

SNR Calculation

Target Name:    2011 EZ78
HMag:           17.15
Diameter:       1.2 km 
Period:         3.12 h      

                                                #                 max
 start date    window      RA, dec   dist     runs        SNR   SNR/run
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
2011 Jul 02  03:47-13:15   291,  +8  0.111      150         30         3
2011 Jul 03  03:57-13:12   293,  +5  0.108      151         34         3
2011 Jul 04  04:08-13:07   295,  +3  0.105      151         37         3
2011 Jul 05  04:21-13:02   297,   0  0.102      150         40         4
2011 Jul 06  04:34-12:57   299,  -3  0.100      147         42         4
2011 Jul 07  04:49-12:51   301,  -6  0.098      144         44         4
2011 Jul 08  05:06-12:44   303,  -9  0.097      138         44         4
2011 Jul 09  05:24-12:36   305, -13  0.096      132         44         4
2011 Jul 10  05:44-12:27   308, -16  0.096      123         41         4
2011 Jul 11  06:05-12:17   310, -19  0.096      113         38         4
2011 Jul 12  06:29-12:05   313, -22  0.097      101         34         4
2011 Jul 13  06:56-11:51   315, -25  0.098       88         29         3
2011 Jul 14  07:27-11:33   318, -28  0.099       72         24         3
2011 Jul 15  08:04-11:09   321, -31  0.102       53         18         3

Goldstone SNRs assume Ptx = 450 kW 

Track Assignments


Goldstone track:

        UT          UT          PST                     Duration  Round-trip
DOY     Date        TX Window   TX Window               hh:mm     time (sec)  SNR/Run 
---     ----        ---------   ---------               --------- -------     -------
190     Jul  9      0530-1125   2230-0425 PDT Jul 8-9    5:55      96           4        


Uncertainties


From Jon Giorgini, 2011 July 7:

With 355 optical measurements (2011-Mar-15 to 2011-Jul-6),
2011 EZ78 solution #46 formal 3-sigma uncertainties are 
reduced to ~25% over prior s41 setup.

 Date__(UT)__HR:MN   POS_3sigma   DOP_X_3sig  RT_delay_3sig
 2011-Jul-09 05:00        0.973         3.11       0.002847
 2011-Jul-09 06:00        0.978         3.07       0.002846
 2011-Jul-09 07:00        0.984         3.04       0.002846
 2011-Jul-09 08:00        0.989         3.00       0.002845
 2011-Jul-09 09:00        0.994         2.97       0.002844
 2011-Jul-09 10:00        1.000         2.93       0.002843
 2011-Jul-09 11:00        1.005         2.90       0.002842
 2011-Jul-09 12:00        1.010         2.86       0.002841

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

From Jon Giorgini, 2011 Jul 01:

With 294 usable optical measurements (2011-Mar-15 to 2011-Jul-1),
2011 EZ78 solution #41 formal 3-sigma X-band uncertainties are shown 
below.  They do not change much over the time of the radar experiment.

 Date__(UT)__HR:MN   POS_3sigma   DOP_X_3sig  RT_delay_3sig
 2011-Jul-09 05:00        2.722         4.46       0.003799
 2011-Jul-09 06:00        2.735         4.43       0.003797
 2011-Jul-09 07:00        2.747         4.41       0.003795
 2011-Jul-09 08:00        2.760         4.39       0.003793
 2011-Jul-09 09:00        2.772         4.37       0.003791
 2011-Jul-09 10:00        2.785         4.35       0.003789
 2011-Jul-09 11:00        2.797         4.33       0.003787
 2011-Jul-09 12:00        2.809         4.31       0.003785

The astrometric dataset for the solution looks very clean.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 
From JPL Horizons, Jun 19 2011, Solution #33, #obs 191 (95 day data arc)

 Date__(UT)__HR:MN      POS_3sigma  DOP_S_3sig  DOP_X_3sig  RT_delay_3sig
 2011-Jul-01 00:00 *m      9.587        4.86       17.39       0.017598
 2011-Jul-02 00:00 *m     10.993        4.62       16.54       0.017332
 2011-Jul-03 00:00 *m     12.544        4.40       15.75       0.017034
 2011-Jul-04 00:00 *m     14.231        4.22       15.11       0.016700
 2011-Jul-05 00:00 *m     16.036        4.11       14.69       0.016326
 2011-Jul-06 00:00 *m     17.929        4.07       14.57       0.015906
 2011-Jul-07 00:00 *m     19.866        4.15       14.83       0.015440
 2011-Jul-08 00:00 *m     21.797        4.33       15.48       0.014927
 2011-Jul-09 00:00 *m     23.661        4.62       16.52       0.014371
 2011-Jul-10 00:00 *m     25.398        5.00       17.88       0.013779
 2011-Jul-11 00:00 *m     26.951        5.45       19.48       0.013159
 2011-Jul-12 00:00 *      28.273        5.93       21.22       0.012523
 2011-Jul-13 00:00 *      29.333        6.44       23.04       0.011886
 2011-Jul-14 00:00 *      30.119        6.95       24.87       0.011262
 2011-Jul-15 00:00 *      30.633        7.45       26.65       0.010664

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

Apparent Magnitudes and Solar Elongations:

 Date__(UT)__HR:MN     R.A._(J2000.0)_DEC.  APmag            delta     S-O-T /r
 2011-Jul-01 00:00 *m  288.79661  10.72040  14.06 0.11636587700404  144.9129 /L
 2011-Jul-02 00:00 *m  290.44936   8.50729  13.94 0.11255515812339  146.9350 /L
 2011-Jul-03 00:00 *m  292.18630   6.11914  13.81 0.10905639360001  149.0553 /L
 2011-Jul-04 00:00 *m  294.00956   3.55677  13.69 0.10590099810882  151.2430 /L
 2011-Jul-05 00:00 *m  295.92057   0.82617  13.57 0.10312082058741  153.4495 /L
 2011-Jul-06 00:00 *m  297.91991  -2.06049  13.46 0.10074706403969  155.6031 /L
 2011-Jul-07 00:00 *m  300.00713  -5.08410  13.36 0.09880895709785  157.6031 /L
 2011-Jul-08 00:00 *m  302.18055  -8.21842  13.28 0.09733225421869  159.3171 /L
 2011-Jul-09 00:00 *m  304.43709 -11.43054  13.22 0.09633769950825  160.5888 /L
 2011-Jul-10 00:00 *m  306.77214 -14.68219  13.19 0.09583963655044  161.2674 /L
 2011-Jul-11 00:00 *m  309.17944 -17.93177  13.19 0.09584496287321  161.2571 /L
 2011-Jul-12 00:00 *   311.65106 -21.13690  13.22 0.09635259773118  160.5607 /L
 2011-Jul-13 00:00 *   314.17742 -24.25719  13.28 0.09735355536881  159.2781 /L
 2011-Jul-14 00:00 *   316.74740 -27.25664  13.37 0.09883161164666  157.5617 /L
 2011-Jul-15 00:00 *   319.34858 -30.10558  13.47 0.10076445110625  155.5669 /L
 2011-Jul-16 00:00 *   321.96749 -32.78167  13.57 0.10312511397268  153.4247 /L
 2011-Jul-17 00:00 *   324.58999 -35.27022  13.69 0.10588354328388  151.2340 /L
 2011-Jul-18 00:00 *   327.20167 -37.56374  13.81 0.10900805736439  149.0650 /L
 2011-Jul-19 00:00 *   329.78828 -39.66099  13.94 0.11246662504139  146.9650 /L
 2011-Jul-20 00:00 *   332.33610 -41.56586  14.06 0.11622788005689  144.9640 /L

Setups


CW setup:

We are expecting a bandwidth of about 40 Hz so we're going to use
a relatively coarse frequency resolution of 3.9 Hz, at least initially.

Due to the relatively low SNRs and the RTT of 96 seconds, we will use 
4 hops with dwells of 20 seconds each.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------
TX polarization           RCP
RCV polarization          LCP & RCP
Frequency hops:           4
Dwell                     20 seconds                      
Bandwidth:                4000 Hz 
Sampling interval:        2500 x 0.1 usec
VME FFT for PSD files:    1024 for 3.91-Hz resolution 

Assuming things go well with CW observations, we will then try 10 and 11 microsecond
ranging.   What we do after that depends on the SNRs and how well things have gone
up to that point.


Ranging setups:
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
127 x 64 10-usec single sample
baud             10 usec
code            127
gates           127
PRP            1270 usec
FFT              64   
CLT       VME     ?
          PFS     ?
ncoh              4
bandwidth        196.9 Hz   
resolution       3.1 Hz
TXOFF          +50 Hz -> echo will be centered at +16 bins or in bin 32 + 16 = 48
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
127 x 64 11-usec single sample
baud             11 usec
code            127
gates           127
PRP            1397 usec
FFT              64  
CLT       VME     ?
          PFS     ?
ncoh              4
bandwidth        179.0  Hz   
resolution       2.8  Hz
TXOFF          +50 Hz --> echo will be centered at +18 bins or in bin 32 + 18 = 50
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
1-usec single sample
baud              1 usec
code              127
ncoh              20
bandwidth         393.7  Hz
FFT               128
dfreq             3.1  Hz
TXoff            +50 Hz  (echo in bin 64+16 =80)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
0.25-usec imaging  
baud            0.25 usec
code            127
FFT             128
ncoh            246
bandwidth       128 Hz    
resolution      1.00 Hz
TXOFF          +20  Hz, echo is in bin 64+20=84 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
0.125-usec 
------------ 
baud           0.125 usec
code           255  
FFT            256 
ncoh           122
bandwidth      257.15 Hz      
resolution     1.0045 Hz
TXOFF          +30 Hz to put echo at 128 + 30 = bin 158 

_____________________________________________________________________
POSSIBLE RANGING SETUPS: (code=127, FFT=64, single-pol'n) 
   These are from JX, w/ max-band (min-acc) options from Ray Jurgens.
   Currently configured for 5-sec records.
_______________________________________________________________________
 Setup        Baud        RP         1-acc 1-acc      
            usec   m      usec        band   res    acc  band     res 
_______________________________________________________________________
 
JX1XS110  11.000 1650    1397.0      715.8  11.2      2   358     5.6
JX1XS070   7.000 1050     889.0     1124.9  17.6      3   375     5.9
                                                      
JX1XS020   2.000  300     254.0     3937.0  61.5     12   328     5.1
                                                      4   984    15.4 

JX1XS010   1.000  150     127.0     7874.0 123.0     41   192     3.0 
                                                      8   984    15.4 

JX1XS005   0.500   75      63.5    15748.0 246.1    123   128     2.0 
                                                     15  1050    16.4 

JX1XS002   0.250   37.5    31.75   31496.1 492.1    492    64     1.0
                                                     30  1050    16.4 
 
JX1XS001   0.125   18.75   15.875  62992.1 984.3   1970    32     0.5 
                                                     60  1050    16.4 
____________________________________________________________________


Instructions

NOTE: VME data should be moved to the appropriate subdirectories in aardvark:/export/data0/2011EZ78/raw/

2011 EZ78 POINTING:

  OSOD and predicts are on aardvark:

/export/data3/osod/ops/2011EZ78/PRDX.s46
                               /PUNCH.OUT.s46
                               /EPH.OUT.s46

POINTING  
                                                       TX Offsets    
Date (UTC)   DOY  hhmmss    RA        Dec      Macro   LHA     Dec    RTT    OSOD
2011 07 09   190  050000 305.0896 -12.0721     A                     95.96    46
2011 07 09        060000 305.1828 -12.2082     A                     95.93
2011 07 09        070000 305.2752 -12.3442     A                     95.90
2011 07 09        080000 305.3670 -12.4801     A                     95.87
2011 07 09        090000 305.4584 -12.6156     A       -2.4  -3.6    95.85
2011 07 09        100000 305.5501 -12.7509     A                     95.82
2011 07 09        110000 305.6421 -12.8860     A                     95.81
2011 07 09        120000 305.7350 -13.0208     A                     95.79
2011 07 09        130000 305.8291 -13.1554     A                     95.78

Transmit offsets are given in millidegrees.  


PRDX.OUT.s46 TRANSMITTER: STATION #14, RECEIVER: STATION #14 RECEIVER U.T. RANGE DOPPLER LHA DEC RA EL 2011 JUL 09 05:20 95.9517706509 80344.984 304.7982 -12.1175 305.121 19.451 2011 JUL 09 05:30 95.9461697123 79463.129 307.2895 -12.1402 305.136 21.145 2011 JUL 09 05:40 95.9406316991 78549.617 309.7808 -12.1629 305.152 22.803 2011 JUL 09 05:50 95.9351587968 77605.532 312.2722 -12.1856 305.167 24.420 2011 JUL 09 06:00 95.9297531067 76632.015 314.7635 -12.2083 305.183 25.993 2011 JUL 09 06:10 95.9244166501 75630.263 317.2549 -12.2309 305.198 27.519 2011 JUL 09 06:20 95.9191513648 74601.526 319.7463 -12.2536 305.214 28.993 2011 JUL 09 06:30 95.9139590928 73547.107 322.2378 -12.2763 305.229 30.412 2011 JUL 09 06:40 95.9088415895 72468.353 324.7293 -12.2990 305.245 31.772 2011 JUL 09 06:50 95.9038005139 71366.661 327.2207 -12.3216 305.260 33.068 2011 JUL 09 07:00 95.8988374195 70243.469 329.7122 -12.3443 305.275 34.295 2011 JUL 09 07:10 95.8939537661 69100.257 332.2038 -12.3669 305.291 35.448 2011 JUL 09 07:20 95.8891508998 67938.540 334.6953 -12.3896 305.306 36.524 2011 JUL 09 07:30 95.8844300676 66759.870 337.1868 -12.4122 305.321 37.515 2011 JUL 09 07:40 95.8797923985 65565.831 339.6784 -12.4348 305.336 38.419 2011 JUL 09 07:50 95.8752389175 64358.034 342.1700 -12.4575 305.352 39.229 2011 JUL 09 08:00 95.8707705277 63138.118 344.6616 -12.4801 305.367 39.942 2011 JUL 09 08:10 95.8663880224 61907.742 347.1531 -12.5027 305.382 40.552 2011 JUL 09 08:20 95.8620920783 60668.586 349.6447 -12.5253 305.397 41.057 2011 JUL 09 08:30 95.8578832471 59422.347 352.1363 -12.5479 305.413 41.452 2011 JUL 09 08:40 95.8537619677 58170.734 354.6279 -12.5705 305.428 41.735 2011 JUL 09 08:50 95.8497285566 56915.466 357.1195 -12.5931 305.443 41.904 2011 JUL 09 09:00 95.8457832094 55658.268 359.6111 -12.6157 305.458 41.957 2011 JUL 09 09:10 95.8419259988 54400.870 2.1027 -12.6382 305.474 41.895 2011 JUL 09 09:20 95.8381568825 53144.999 4.5943 -12.6608 305.489 41.717 2011 JUL 09 09:30 95.8344756907 51892.382 7.0859 -12.6834 305.504 41.425 2011 JUL 09 09:40 95.8308821330 50644.737 9.5775 -12.7059 305.520 41.021 2011 JUL 09 09:50 95.8273758051 49403.774 12.0690 -12.7284 305.535 40.508 2011 JUL 09 10:00 95.8239561749 48171.189 14.5606 -12.7510 305.550 39.889 2011 JUL 09 10:10 95.8206225983 46948.661 17.0521 -12.7735 305.565 39.169 2011 JUL 09 10:20 95.8173743120 45737.851 19.5437 -12.7960 305.581 38.350 2011 JUL 09 10:30 95.8142104383 44540.396 22.0352 -12.8185 305.596 37.439 2011 JUL 09 10:40 95.8111299831 43357.908 24.5267 -12.8410 305.611 36.439 2011 JUL 09 10:50 95.8081318407 42191.970 27.0181 -12.8635 305.627 35.357 2011 JUL 09 11:00 95.8052147975 41044.134 29.5096 -12.8860 305.642 34.196 2011 JUL 09 11:10 95.8023775312 39915.917 32.0010 -12.9085 305.658 32.962 2011 JUL 09 11:20 95.7996186147 38808.797 34.4924 -12.9310 305.673 31.659 2011 JUL 09 11:30 95.7969365183 37724.213 36.9838 -12.9535 305.688 30.293

2011 EZ78 GOLDSTONE MASTERLOG

============================================================================== Receive TX Setup hops dwell code ncoh FFT runs start -stop OSOD offset Poln Notes ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ CW 4 20 21 053852-064422 46 0 OC and SC 10 usec 127 1 64 7 065811-071854 46 +50 11 usec 127 1 64 10 072832-075851 46 +50 11 usec 127 1 64 7 080547-082630 48 +50 1 usec 127 10 64 23 083651-094846 48 +50 No echoes CW 4 20 26 100257-112428 48 0 OC only ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Dr. Lance A. M. Benner | PHONE: (818) 354-7412 Mail Stop 300-233 | FAX: (818) 354-9476 Jet Propulsion Laboratory | email: lance.benner@jpl.nasa.gov California Institute of Technology | Plan: To live long and prosper Pasadena, CA 91109-8099 http://echo.jpl.nasa.gov/asteroids/2011EZ78/2011EZ78_planning.html

Asteroid Radar Astronomy
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